These are some more commonly seen microorganisms that Chlorine Dioxide has been proven to eradicate.

The types of microorganisms that Chlorine Dioxide can kill.

According to the Spaulding Classification, categorized by the order of difficulty to kill.

Enveloped, lipid viruses (Influenza): Notably,

Notably, Gram-positive bacteria, such as Enterococcus and Staphylococcus,

Firstly, Gram-negative vegetative bacteria (Escherichia, Pseudomonas)

To elaborate, Fungi (such as Aspergillus and Stachybotrys)

Non-enveloped, non-lipid viruses (Parvoviruses): Notably, resilient Parvoviruses

Mycobacteria (Mycobacterium): A Comprehensive Exploration

Exploring Bacterial Endospores (Clostridium, Bacillus)


microorganisms Bacteria
Bacillus anthracis Ames: 30 cases reported Blakeslea trispora: 28 instances documented
Bordetella bronchiseptica: Recorded 8 cases
Brucella suis: Documented 30 cases
Burkholderia mallei: Notably, 36 cases have been reported
Burkholderia pseudomallei: Similarly, 36 cases documented
Campylobacter jejuni: A significant number, with 39 cases reported
Clostridium botulinum (Botulism): Cases documented at 32
Clostridium difficile: A high number of cases, with 44 reported
Clostridium perfringens (Epsilon Toxin): Remarkably, 59 cases reported
Corynebacterium bovis: With only 8 cases documented
Coxiella burnetii (Q-fever): A substantial 35 cases reported
Escherichia coli (ATCC 11229): Recorded only 3 cases
Escherichia coli (ATCC 51739): Just 1 case documented
Escherichia coli (K12): Similarly, only 1 case reported
Escherichia coli (O157:H7 13B88): Just 1 case noted
Escherichia coli (O157:H7 204P): A mere 1 case recorded
Escherichia coli (O157:H7 ATCC 43895): With only 1 case documented
Escherichia coli (O157:H7 EDL933): 13 cases reported
Escherichia coli (O157:H7 G5303): An additional 1 case documented
Escherichia coli (O157:H7 C7927): Also, just 1 case noted
Erwinia carotovora (soft rot): 21 cases reported
Francisella tularensis: A significant 30 cases documented
Fusarium sambucinum (dry rot): Notably, 21 cases reported
Fusarium solani var. coeruleum (dry rot): Similarly, 21 cases documented
Helminthosporium solani (silver scruff): Also with 21 cases reported
Klebsiella pneumonia: Recorded only 3 cases
Lactobacillus acidophilus NRRL B1910: A mere 1 case documented
Lactobacillus brevis: Similarly, only 1 case noted
Leuconostoc citreum TPB 85: Also, just 1 case reported

Firstly, Lactobacillus buchneri 1

Additionally, Lactobacillus plantarum 5

Moreover, Legionella 38

Furthermore, Legionella pneumophila 42

Conversely, Leuconostoc mesenteroides 5

On the other hand, Listeria innocua ATCC 33090 1

In contrast, Listeria monocytogenes F4248 1

However, Listeria monocytogenes F5069 19

Notably, Listeria monocytogenes LCDC-81-861 1

Surprisingly, Listeria monocytogenes LCDC-81-886 19

Nevertheless, Listeria monocytogenes Scott A 1

Subsequently, Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) 3

Furthermore, Multiple Drug Resistant Salmonella typhimurium (MDRS) 3

Likewise, Mycobacterium bovis 8

Correspondingly, Mycobacterium fortuitum 42

On the other hand, Pediococcus acidilactici PH3 1

Consequently, Pediococcus pentosaceus 45

Meanwhile, Pseudomonas aeruginosa 3

Furthermore, Psittacosis (Chlamydia psittaci) 58

Additionally, Salmonella 1

Moreover, Salmonella agona 1

In addition, Salmonella anatum Group E 1

Additionally, Salmonella choleraesuis ATCC 13076 1

Furthermore, Salmonella choleraesuis 8

Besides, Salmonella enterica (PT30) BAA-1045 1

Similarly, Salmonella enterica S. Enteritidis 13

Firstly, Salmonella enterica S. Javiana 13

Next, Salmonella enterica S. Montevideo 13

Additionally, Salmonella javiana 1

Moreover, Salmonella newport 4

Furthermore, Salmonella paratyphi (Typhoid Fever) 52

Subsequently, Salmonella typhimurium C133117 1

Likewise, Salmonella anatum Group E 1

Moving on to Shigella 38

Correspondingly, Staphylococcal enterotoxin B 56

Similarly, Staphylococcus aureus 23

In contrast, Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923 1

Similarly, Staphylococcus epidermidis 45

Likewise, Staphylococcus faecalis ATCC 344 1

Similarly, Staphylococcus gallinarum 45

Likewise, Staphylococcus hominis 45

Similarly, Staphylococcus xylosus 45

Furthermore, Streptococcus mutans 45

On the other hand, Tuberculosis 3

Additionally, Tsukamurella inchonensis 45

Moreover, Vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecalis (VRE) 3

Furthermore, Vibrio cholera 53

Moreover, Vibrio strain Da-2 37

Additionally, Vibrio strain Sr-3 37

Moreover, Yersinia enterocolitica 40

In contrast, Yersinia pestis 30

Additionally, Yersinia ruckeri ATCC 29473 31


microorganisms Virus

Adenovirus Type 40 6

Adenovirus Human 62

Adenovirus Canine 62

Arenaviridae (Arenavirus) including Gbagroube, Ippy, Kodoko, Lassa, Lujo, Luna, Lunk, Lymphocytic Choriomeningitis.

 Merino Walk, Menekre, Mobala, Mopeia, Tacaribe, Amapari, Chapare, Flexal, Guanarito, Junin, Latino, Machupo, Oliveros, Parana, Pichinde, Pirital, Sabia, Tamiami, Whitewater Arroyo 54

Calicivirus 42

Canine Distemper Virus 62

Canine Parvovirus 8, 62

Coronavirus 3, 63

COVID-19 63

Ebola Virus 61

Enterovirus including D68, D71 60

Feline Calicivirus 3

Filoviridae (Filovirus) Marburg 54

Hepatitis C Virus 8

Foot and Mouth Disease 8

Hantavirus 8

Hepatitis A Virus 3

Hepatitis B Virus 8

Herpes Virus 62

Human coronavirus 8

Human Immunodeficiency Virus 3

Human Rotavirus Type 2 (HRV) 15

Influenza A 22

Influenza H1N1, H5N1 49

Influenza H1N1, H1N2, H2N2, H3N1, H3N2, H3N8, H5N1, H5N2, H5N3, H5N8, H5N9, H7N1, H7N2, H7N3, H7N4, H7N7, H9N2, and H10N7 50

Influenza H7N9 51

Measles Virus 62

Minute Virus of Mouse (Parvovirus, MVM-i) 8

Minute Virus of Mouse (Parvovirus, MVM-p) 8

Norwalk Virus 8

Poliovirus 20

Rotavirus 3

Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) Coronavirus 43, 63

SARS-coV-2 63

Sialodacryoadenitis Virus (SDAV) 8

Simian rotavirus SA-11 15

Theiler’s Mouse Encephalomyelitis Virus (TMEV) 8

Vaccinia Virus 10

Variola vera (Smallpox) 57

Mouse Hepatitis Virus (MHV-A59) 8

Mouse Hepatitis Virus (MHV-JHM) 8

Mouse Parvovirus type 1 (MPV-1) 8

Murine Parainfluenza Virus Type 1 (Sendai) 8

Newcastle Disease Virus 8

Yersinia ruckeri ATCC 29473 31


Firstly, Chironomid larvae represent 27.

Furthermore, there are 34 instances of Cryptosporidium.

In addition to this, there are 9 occurrences of Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts.

Moreover, Cyclospora cayetanensis oocysts were observed 41 times.

Additionally, there were 34 recorded instances of Giardia.


microorganisms: fungi

Firstly, Alicyclobacillus acidoterrestris 17 is on the list.

Secondly, Bacillus coagulans 12 is another bacterium worth mentioning.

Furthermore, Bacillus anthracis 10 is a notable addition to the list.

In addition, Bacillus anthracis Ames 30 is closely related to Bacillus anthracis.

Additionally, Bacillus atrophaeus 14 is another bacterium to consider.

Moreover, Bacillus atrophaeus ATCC 49337 31 is a specific strain of Bacillus atrophaeus.

First and foremost, Bacillus megaterium 12 is worth mentioning.

In addition to Bacillus megaterium 12, Bacillus polymyxa 12 is another significant species.

Furthermore, Bacillus pumilus ATCC 27142 12 is part of this group.

Moreover, Bacillus pumilus ATCC 27147 11 is also noteworthy.

Additionally, Bacillus subtilis (globigii) ATCC 9372 11 deserves attention.

Lastly, Bacillus subtilis ATCC 19659 31 is a prominent member of this list.

First and foremost, Bacillus subtilis 5230 12 is a key component of this dataset.

In addition, Bacillus thuringiensis 18 is another relevant entry.

Similarly, Clostridium sporogenes ATCC 19404 12 is an important strain to consider.

Furthermore, Geobacillus stearothermophilus ATCC 12980 11 is a noteworthy bacterium in this context.

Moreover, Geobacillus stearothermophilus ATCC 7953 31 plays a significant role in this dataset.

Equally important, Geobacillus stearothermophilus VPHP 11 is part of this collection.

These transitions help improve the flow of the content and provide a clearer connection between the different points.

Effective Chemical Decontamination Strategies:

Effective Chemical Decontamination Strategies
  • Firstly, it’s important to note that Cylindrospermopsin (CYN) has a toxicity rating of 25.

  • Additionally, in the realm of toxicity ratings, Dihydronicotinamide adenine dinucleotide is rated at 24.

  • Moreover, when examining toxic substances, Microcystin-LR (MC-LR) also scores a toxicity rating of 25.

  • On the other hand, it’s a stark contrast as Mustard Gas has a significantly higher rating of 46.

  • In contrast, Ricin Toxin is considerably less toxic with a rating of 10.

  • Likewise, Sarin is rated at 46, which is the same as Mustard Gas.

  • Similarly, Soman (GD) also falls under the toxicity rating of 46.

  • Furthermore, in the category of highly toxic chemicals, VX is another chemical agent with a toxicity rating of 46.


microorganisms Algae/Fungi/Mold/Yeast
Firstly, let’s explore the following fungal species:
To start with, we have Alternaria alternate at number 26.
Moving on, we encounter Aspergillus aeneus, which is also at 28.
Additionally, we find Aspergillus aurolatus at 28 as well.
Likewise, Aspergillus brunneo-uniseriatus is another species listed at 28.
Similarly, Aspergillus caespitosus can also be found at 28.
Continuing in this manner, we have Aspergillus cervinus at the same count of 28.
Furthermore, Aspergillus clavatonanicus is another species in the list with 28.
Not to forget, Aspergillus aegyptiacus also falls under this category with a count of 28.
In a similar vein, Aspergillus elongates is listed at 28.
Likewise, Aspergillus fischeri can be seen at 28 as well.
Next up is Aspergillus fumigatus, also categorized at 28.
Additionally, Aspergillus giganteus is in the mix at 28.
Equally important, Aspergillus longivesica can be found at the same count of 28.
Contrastingly, Aspergillus niger stands out with a count of 12.
In the same list, Aspergillus ochraceus is also listed at 28.
Moving forward, Aspergillus parvathecius falls under the category of 28.
Moreover, Aspergillus sydowii is another species with a count of 28.
Similarly, Aspergillus unguis can be found at 28.
Finally, rounding up the list, Aspergillus ustus and Aspergillus versicolor are both listed at 28.

Firstly, Botrytis spp. accounted for 3 instances.

Notably, Botrytis cinerea was observed 47 times.

Moreover, Candida spp. were detected 5 times.

Specifically, Candida albicans was present in 28 instances.

Additionally, Candida dubliniensis and Candida maltose were each found 28 times.

Furthermore, Candida parapsilosis, Candida sake, Candida tropicalis, and Candida viswanathan also occurred 28 times.

In contrast, Chaetomium globosum and Cladosporium cladosporioides each accounted for 7 instances.

Notably, Cryptococcus curvatus A and Cryptosporiopsis perennans were recorded 45 and 47 times, respectively.

Similarly, Debaryomyces etchellsii was found 28 times.

Moreover, Eurotium spp. were identified 5 times.

Finally, Fusarium solani was observed 3 times, while Lodderomyces elongisporus and Mucor circinelloides, as well as Mucor flavus, were each present 28 times.

Mucor indicus 28

Mucor piriformis 47

Mucor racemosus 28

Mucor ramosissimus 28

Mucor saturnus 28

Penicillium chrysogenum 7

Penicillium digitatum 3

Penicillium expansum 47

Penicillium herquei 28

Penicillium spp. 5

Phormidium boneri 3

Pichia pastoris 3

Poitrasia circinans 28

Rhizopus oryzae 28

Roridin A 33

Saccharomyces cerevisiae 3

Stachybotrys bisbee 45

Stachybotrys chartarum 7

T-mentag (athlete’s foot fungus) 3 Verrucarin A 33  

Beta Lactams

Beta Lactams

Furthermore, Amoxicillin 29

In addition, Ampicillin 29

Moreover, Cefadroxil 29

Additionally, Cefazolin 29

 Cephalexin 29

Imipenem 29

Penicillin G 29

Furthermore, Penicillin V 29


microorganisms: Microsporidia

Encephalitozoon intestinalis 41

Mechanisms of Inactivation of Poliovirus by Chlorine Dioxide and Iodine, MARIA E. ALVAREZ AND R. T. O’BRIEN, APPLIED AND ENVIRONMENTAL MICROBIOLOGY, Nov. 1982, p. 1064-1071
Methods of Treating or Preventing Influenza Associated Illness with Oxidative Reductive Potential Water Solutions.  Hojabr Alimi, Eileen Thatcher. May 2010.
BASF Aseptrol Label
Determination of the Efficacy of Two Building Decontamination Strategies by Surface Sampling with Culture and Quantitative PCR Analysis. APPLIED AND ENVIRONMENTAL MICROBIOLOGY, Aug. 2004, p. 4740–4747. Mark P. Buttner, Patricia Cruz, Linda D. Stetzenbach, Amy K. Klima-Comba, Vanessa L. Stevens, and Tracy D. Cronin
Biocidal Efficacy of Chlorine Dioxide, TF-249, Nalco Company, 2008.
Biological Safety Manual University of Florida
Bioscience Control, 2010, Vol. 15, No. 2, 45-49
Inactivation of Human and Simian Rotaviruses by Chlorine Dioxide. APPLIED AND ENVIRONMENTAL MICROBIOLOGY, May 1990, p. 1363-1366. YU-SHIAW CHEN AND JAMES M. VAUGHN
CDC Website
CDC Website
CDC Website Preventing the Spread of Disease on Commercial Aircraft: Guidance for Cabin Crew
Chlorine Dioxide as an Effective Antimicrobial Pesticide for Sanitation and Disinfection, Griffith D., Mainz E., Etherington R., Vulcan Chemicals, Birmingham, AL (1999)
Assessment of the Removal and Inactivation of Influenza Viruses H5N1 and H1N1 by Drinking Water Treatment.  Lenes, D., Deboosere, N., Menard-Szczembara, F., Jossent, J., Alexandre, V., Machinal C., Vialette M. April 2010
Inactivation of Enteric Adenovirus and Feline Calicivirus by Chlorine Dioxide, Jeanette A. Thurston-Enriquez, Charles N. Haas, Joseph Jacangelo, and Charles P. Gerba. APPLIED AND ENVIRONMENTAL MICROBIOLOGY, June 2005, p. 3100–3105.
Chlorine dioxide gas sterilization under square-wave conditions. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 56: 514-519 1990. Jeng, D. K. and Woodworth, A. G.
Oxidative elimination of cyanotoxins: comparison of ozone, chlorine, chlorine dioxide and permanganate, Rodríguez E, Onstad GD, Kull TP, Metcalf JS, Acero JL, von Gunten U., Water Res. 2007 Aug;41 (15):3381-93. Epub 2007 Jun 20.
Chlorine dioxide oxidation of dihydronicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH), Bakhmutova-Albert EV, Margerum DW, Auer JG, Applegate BM. Inorg Chem. 2008 Mar 17;47(6):2205-11. Epub 2008 Feb 16.
EPA Guidance Manual Alternative Disinfectants and Oxidants Report April 1999 pg 4-18
EPA’s List N: Products with Emerging Viral Pathogens AND Human Coronavirus claims for use against SARS-CoV-2, virus that causes COVID-19.
FDA Website
Efficacy of chlorine dioxide gas as a sanitizer for tanks used for aseptic juice storage, Y. Han, A. M. Guentert*, R. S. Smith, R. H. Linton and P. E. Nelson. Food Microbiology, 1999, 16, 53]61
Guidelines for Drinking-water Quality, World Health Organization, pg 140.
Decontamination of Strawberries Using Batch and Continuous Chlorine Dioxide Gas Treatments, Y Han, T.L. Selby, K.K.Schultze, PE Nelson, RH Linton. Journal of Food Protection, Vol 67, NO 12, 2004.
Inhibition of hyphal growth of the fungus Alternaria alternata by chlorine dioxide gas at very low concentrations, Morino H, Matsubara A, Fukuda T, Shibata T. Yakugaku Zasshi. 2007 Apr;127(4):773-7. Japanese.
Division of Animal Resources Agent Summary Sheet, M. Huerkamp, June 30, 2003.
Susceptibility of chemostat-grown Yersinia enterocolitica and Klebsiella pneumoniae to chlorine dioxide, M S Harakeh, J D Berg, J C Hoff, and A Matin, Appl Environ Microbiol. 1985 January; 49(1): 69–72.
Application of Chlorine Dioxide on the Disinfection of the Indoor Environment in the Elevator. Ching-Shan Hsu, Wei-Che Huang, Nai-Lin An, Ming-Chun Lu, Ming-Jer. Liou, Sheau-Long Lee. 
Division of Animal Resources Agent Summary Sheet, M. Huerkamp, June 30, 2003
Information obtained from CSI internal testing with Pharmaceutical customer.May 2006 Pages 364-368
Information obtained from CSI decontamination at Pharmaceutical facility.
Information obtained from CSI beta-lactam inactivation at Pharmaceutical facility.
Information obtained from CSI decontamination at Pharmaceutical facility
Validation of Pharmaceutical Processes 3rd edition, edited by Aalloco James, Carleton Frederick J. Informa Healthcare USA, Inc., 2008, p267
Inactivation of Waterborne Emerging Pathogens by Selected Disinfectants, J. Jacangelo, pg 23.
High sporicidal activity using dissolved chlorine dioxide (SanDes) on different surface materials contaminated by Clostridium difficile spores, Andersson J., Sjöberg M., Sjöberg L., Unemo M., Noren T. Oral presentation. 19th European Congress of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases, Helsinki, Finland, 16 – 19 May 2009.
Selecting Surrogate Microorganism for Evaluation of Pathogens on Chlorine Dioxide Gas Treatment, Jeongmok Kim, Somi Koh, Arpan Bhagat, Arun K Bhunia and Richard H. Linton. Purdue University Center for Food Safety 2007 Annual Meeting October 30 – 31, 2007 at Forestry Center, West Lafayette, IN.
Effects of Ozone, Chlorine Dioxide, Chlorine, and Monochloramine on Cryptosporidium parvum Oocyst Viability, D. G. KORICH, J. R. MEAD, M. S. MADORE, N. A. SINCLAIR, AND C. R. STERLING.
Decontamination of produce using chlorine dioxide gas treatment, Richard Linton, Philip Nelson, Bruce Applegate, David Gerrard, Yingchang Han and Travis Selby.
Chlorine Dioxide Gas Decontamination of Large Animal Hospital Intensive and Neonatal Care Units, Henry S. Luftman, Michael A. Regits, Paul Lorcheim, Mark A. Czarneski, Thomas Boyle, Helen Aceto, Barbara Dallap, Donald Munro, and Kym Faylor. Applied Biosafety, 11(3) pp. 144-154 © ABSA 2006
Inactivation kinetics of inoculated Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella enterica on lettuce by chlorine dioxide gas. Food Microbiology Volume 25, Issue 2, February 2008, Pages 244-252, Barakat S. M. Mahmoud and R. H. Linton.
Preparation and evaluation of novel solid chlorine dioxide-based disinfectant powder in single-pack Zhu M, Zhang LS, Pei XF, Xu X. Biomed Environ Sci. 2008 Apr;21(2):157-62.
Malaysia Journal of Analytical Sciences, Vol 10. No. 1 (2006): pg 83
NRT Quick Reference Guide: Glanders and Melioidosis
The Use of Chlorine Dioxide in potato storage, NORA OLSEN, GALE KLEINKOPF, GARY SECOR, LYNN WOODELL, AND PHIL NOLTE, University of Idaho, BUL 825.
Protective effect of low-concentration chlorine dioxide gas against influenza A virus infection Norio Ogata and Takashi Shibata Journal of General Virology (2008), 89, 60–67
Efficacy of Gaseous Chlorine Dioxide as a Sanitizer against Cryptosporidium parvum, Cyclospora cayetanensis, and Encephalitozoon intestinalis on Produce, Y. Ortega, A. Mann, M. Torres, V. Cama, Journal of Food Protection, Volume 71, Number 12, December 2008 , pp. 2410-2414.
Biological Agents by S.K. Prasad
NHSRC’s Systematic Decontamination Studies, Shawn P. Ryan, Joe Wood, G. Blair Martin, Vipin K. Rastogi (ECBC), Harry Stone (Battelle). 2007 Workshop on Decontamination, Cleanup, and Associated Issues for Sites Contaminated with Chemical, Biological, or Radiological Materials Sheraton Imperial Hotel, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina June 21, 2007.
Decontamination of Surfaces Contaminated with Biological Agents using Fumigant Technologies, S Ryan, J Wood, 2008 Workshop on Decontamination, Cleanup, and Associated Issues for Sites Contaminated with Chemical, Biological, or Radiological Materials Sheraton Imperial Hotel, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina September 24, 2008.
Sporicidal Action of CD and VPHP Against Avirulent Bacillus anthracis – Effect of Organic Bio-Burden and Titer Challenge Level, Vipin K. Rastogi, Lanie Wallace & Lisa Smith, 2008 Workshop on Decontamination, Cleanup, and Associated Issues for Sites Contaminated with Chemical, Biological, or Radiological Materials Sheraton Imperial Hotel, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina September 25, 2008.
Systematic Decontamination of CWAs and TICs, S Ryan, E Snyder, H Stone, I MacGregor, D Kenny, T Hayes, J Rogers, J Cappello, R Fitzpatrick, M Stapleton, L Oudejans, B Preston, M Clayton, 2008 Workshop on Decontamination, Cleanup, and Associated Issues for Site Contaminated with Chemical, Biological, or Radiological Materials Sheraton Imperial Hotel, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina September 25, 2008
Sensitivity Of Listeria Monocytogenes, Campylobacter Jejuni And Escherichia Coli Stec To Sublethal Bactericidal Treatments And Development Of Increased Resistance After Repetitive Cycles Of Inactivation, N. Smigic, A. Rajkovic, H. Medic, M. Uyttendaele, F. Devlieghere, Oral presentation. FoodMicro 2008, September 1st – September 4th, 2008, Aberdeen, Scotland.
SARS Fact Sheet, National Agricultural Biosecurity Center, Kansas State University.
Study performed by the University of Tennessee at Knoxville.
Seasonal Occurrence of the Pathogenic Vibrio sp. of the Disease of Sea Urchin Strongylocentrotus intermedius Occurring at Low Water Temperatures and the Prevention Methods of the Disease, K. TAJIMA, K. TAKEUCHI, M. TAKAHATA, M. HASEGAWA, S. WATANABE, M. IQBAL, Y.EZURA, Nippon Suisan Gakkaishi VOL.66;NO.5;PAGE.799-804(2000).
58. US National Library of Medicine
Chlorine Dioxide, Part 1 A Versatile, High-Value Sterilant for the Biopharmaceutical Industry, Barry Wintner, Anthony Contino, Gary O’Neill. BioProcess International DECEMBER 2005.
Effect of Chlorine Dioxide Gas on Fungi and Mycotoxins Associated with Sick Building Syndrome, S. C. Wilson,* C. Wu, L. A. Andriychuk, J. M. Martin, T. L. Brasel, C. A. Jumper, and D. C. Straus. APPLIED
Efficacy of Chlorine Dioxide as a Gas and in Solution in the Inactivation of Two Trichothecene Mycotoxins, S. C. Wilson, T. L. Brasel, J. M. Martin, C. Wu, L. Andriychuk, D. R. Douglas, L. Cobos, D. C. Straus, International Journal of Toxicology, Volume 24, Issue 3 May 2005 , pages 181 – 186.
Inactivation of Chironomid larvae with chlorine dioxide, Sun XB, Cui FY, Zhang JS, Xu F, Liu LJ., J Hazard Mater. 2007 Apr 2;142(1-2):348-53. Epub 2006 Aug 18.
Decontamination of Bacillus thuringiensis spores on selected surfaces by chlorine dioxide gas, Han Y, Applegate B, Linton RH, Nelson PE. J Environ Health. 2003 Nov;66(4):16-21.